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    英美文学名词解释

    作者:武永民 时间:2018-04-25 点击数:

    1. Allegory: A tale in verse or prose in which characters, actions, or settings represent abstract ideas or moral qualities. An allegory is a story with two meanings, a literal meaning and a symbolic meaning.

    寓言:用诗歌或散文讲的故事,在这个故事中人物、事件或背景往往代表抽象的概念或道德品质。所有的寓言都是一个具有双重意义、文学内涵或象征意义的故事。

    2. Alliteration: The repetition of the initial consonant sounds in poetry. 头韵:诗歌中单词开头读音的重复。

    3. Allusion: A reference to a person, a place, an event, or a literary work that a writer expects the reader to recognize and respond to. An allusion may be drawn from history, geography, literature, or religion.

    典故:文学作品中作家希望读者能够认识或做出反应的一个人物、地点、事件或文学作品。典故或来自历史、地理、文学或宗教。

    4. American Naturalism: American naturalism was a new and harsher realism. American naturalism had been shaped by the war; by the social upheavals that undermined the comforting faith of an earlier age. America’s literary naturalists dismissed the validity of comforting moral truths. They attempted to achieve extreme objectivity and frankness, presenting characters of low social and economic classes who were determined by their environment and heredity. In presenting the extremes of life, the naturalists sometimes displayed an affinity to the sensationalism of early romanticism, but unlike their romantic predecessors, the naturalists emphasized that the world was amoral, that men and women had no free will, that lives were controlled by heredity and environment, that the destiny of humanity was misery in life and oblivion in death. Although naturalist literature described the world with sometimes brutal realism, it sometimes also aimed at bettering the world through social reform.

    美国自然主义:美国自然主义是一种新的、更具批判性的现实主义。美国自然主义是在战争和影响人们早期信念的社会动乱的影响之下形成的。美国的自然主义者往往否定了广为接受的道德真理的正确性,他们想达到极端的客观与直率,他们所展现的人物往往都是下层社会的人,他们的命运受到环境和遗传的制约。在反应生活方面,自然主义作家往往表现出早期浪漫主义中感伤主义特征,但和浪漫主义不同的是,自然主义者认为,世界缺乏道德,人不论男女都没有自由的意愿,他们的生活都受到遗传和环境的控制,人在生前过着悲惨的生活,死后便被人所遗忘。虽然自然主义文学通过更为苛刻的现实主义手法来展现这个世界,但是他有时也是为了通过社会改革来改善这个世界。

    5. American Puritanism: Puritanism is the practices and beliefs of the Puritans. The Puritans were originally members of a division of the Protestant Church. The first settlers who became the founding fathers of the American nation were quite a few of them. They were a group of serious, religious people, advocating highly religious and moral principles. As the word itself hints, Puritans wanted to purity their religious beliefs and practices. They accepted the doctrine of predestination, original sin and total depravity, and limited atonement through a special infusion of grace form God. As a culture heritage, Puritanism did have a profound influence on the early American mind. American Puritanism also had a enduring influence on American literature.

    美国清教主义:清教主义是新教徒的原来的一个分支——清教徒的行为和信仰。在美国的第一批居民中有很多就是清教徒,他们有着严格的宗教信仰和道德准则。就像这个词所暗指的那样,清教徒们想“清化”他们的宗教信仰和行为习惯。他们相信宿命论、原罪说、全体堕落和有限的赎罪。作为一种文化遗产,美国清教主义在早期美国人的思想上有着深刻的影响,他对美国文学的影响也是颇为持久的。

    6. American Realism: In American literature, the Civil War brought the Romantic Period to an end. The Age of Realism came into existence. It came as a reaction against the lie of romanticism and sentimentalism. Realism turned from an emphasis on the strange toward a faithful rendering of the ordinary, a slice of life as it is really lived. It expresses the concern for commonplace and the low, and it offers an objective rather than an idealistic view of human nature and human experience.

    美国现实主义:在美国文学史上,内战宣告了浪漫主义的终结和现实主义的开始。现实主义反对浪漫主义和感伤主义的谎言,它从一个陌生的世界转向了普通人的真实生活的描写。它所关心的是普通的下层劳动人民而非理想中的人类本性和现实经历。

    7. American Romanticism: The Romantic Period covers the first half of the 19th century. A rising America with its ideals of democracy and equality, its industrialization, its westward expansion, and a variety of foreign influences were among the important factors which made literary expansion and expression not only possible but also inevitable in the period immediately following the nation’s political independence. Yet, romantics frequently shared certain general characteristics: moral enthusiasm, faith in value of individualism and intuitive perception, and a presumption that the natural world was a source of goodness and man’s societies a source of corruption. Romantic values were prominent in American politics, art, and philosophy until the Civil War. The romantic exaltation of the individual suited the nation’s revolutionary heritage and its frontier egalitarianism.

    美国浪漫主义:浪漫主义阶段涵盖了19世纪前半页。美国的不断壮大和发展以及随之而来的明珠和平等的思想、工业化的发展、西北边疆的不断扩展和国外的各种影响使浪漫主义作家文学不但成为一种可能,而且使它成为美国政治独立后的一种必然。然而,浪漫主义文学往往有很多共性:他们热心于道德、相信个人主义价值观和对世界的直观感受,并且他们认为自然世界是真、善、美的源泉而人类社会则是堕落的根源。在内战以前,浪漫主义价值观占据是政治、艺术、和哲学等领域,浪漫主义者对个人的赞扬正好迎合了美国的革命遗风和边疆开拓者的品均主义。

    8. American Transcendentalism: the emergence of the Transcendentalists as an identifiable movement took place during the late 1820s and 1830s, but the roots of their religious philosophy extended much farther back into American religious history. Transcendentalism and evangelical Protestantism followed separate evolutionary branches from American Puritanism, taking as their common ancestor the Calvinism of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. They spoke for cultural rejuvenation and against the materialism of American spirit, or the Oversoul, as the most important thing in the Universe. They stressed the importance of the individual. To them, the individual was the most important element of society. They offered a fresh perception of nature as symbolic of the Spirit or God. Nature was, to them, alive, filled with God’s overwhelming presence. Transcendentalism is based on the belief that the most fundamental truths about life and death can be reached only by going beyond the world of the senses. Emerson’s Nature has been called the “Manifesto of American Transcendentalism” and his The American Scholar has been rightly regarded as America’s “Declaration of Intellectual Independence”.

    美国超验主义:美国超验主义出现的19世纪20年代末期到三十年代,但是它的根源在宗教史上要远得多。超验主义和福音派新教分别是美国清教主义的两个分支,他们的祖先是17世纪和18世纪的加尔文神教。超验主义者主张文化的复兴,认为“超灵”是宇宙中最重要的事物。他们强调个人的重要性,反对精神上的物质主义。对他们来说,个人是一个社会最重要的元素。他们认为自然就是“精神”或“上帝”的象征,它是有生命的,而上帝又无处不在。他们认为生与死最基本的真理可以超越感官的世界而获得。艾默生的《自然》被称为是“美国超验主义的宣言”,他的《美国学者》则被认为是美国的“文化独立宣言书”。

    9. Analogy: (a figure of speech) A comparison made between tow things to show the similarities between them. Analogies are often used for illustration or for argument.

    类比:(修辞)把两种事物放在一起进行对比从而发现他们的相同点,类比一般用于说明或论述。

    10. Anapest: It’s made up of two unstressed and one stressed syllables, with the two unstressed ones in front.

    抑抑扬格:抑抑扬格由两个非重度音节和一个重读音节组成,两个非重度音节在前。

    11. Antagonist: A person or force opposing the protagonist in a narrative; a rival of the hero or heroine.

    反面人物:一个故事中和主人公相对立的人物或一种力量,是男女主人公的对手。

    12. Antithesis: (a figure of speech) The balancing of two contrasting ideas, words phrases, or sentences. An antithesis is often expressed in a balanced sentence, that is, a sentence in which identical or similar grammatical structure is used to express contrasting ideas.

    对偶:(修辞)相互对称的两个短语、句子或思想。对偶往往用一个对称的句子来表达,也就是,一句话中使用相同或相似的语法结构来表达相互对照的两种事物。

    13. Aphorism: A concise, pointed statement expressing a wise or clever observation about life.

    警句:用一种简练、准确的方式来表达对生活充满智慧的观点。

    14. Apostrophe: A figure of speech in which an absent or a dead person, an abstract quality, or something nonhuman is addressed directly.

    顿呼:演说或诗歌等中对某人, 常为死者或不在场者, 或对拟人的事物所说的话。

    15. Argument: A form of discourse in which reason is used to influence or change people’s idea or actions. Writers practice argument most often when writing nonfiction, particularly essays or speeches.

    议论:用讲道理的方法来影响人们的思想或行动的一种文本形式。作家往往是在写非小说文体,尤其是散文或演讲的时候用这种方法。

    16. Aside: In drama, lines spoken by a character in an undertone or directly to the audience. An aside is meant to be unheard by the other characters onstage.

    旁白:在戏剧中低声说出或直接说给观众的台词。旁白在舞台上其他人物是听不到的。

    17. Assonance: The repetition of similar vowel sounds, especially in poetry. Assonance is often employed to please the ear or emphasize certain sounds.

    类韵:在诗歌中相同或相似元音的重复,它的目的主要是用来使句子悦耳动听或用来强调某个音。

    18. Atmosphere: The prevailing mood or feeling of a literary work. Atmosphere is often developed, at least in part, through descriptions of setting. Such descriptions help to create an emotional climate for the writers to establish the reader’s expectations and attitudes.

    气氛:文学作品中主要的基调或感觉。气氛的渲染主要是通过对环境的描写来展开的,这种描写有助于作家创造一种情绪气氛来时感染读者

    19. Autobiography: A person’s account of his or her own life. An autobiography is generally written in narrative form and includes some introspection.

    自传:一个人对他或她自己生活的描述,自传是一种叙述性的文体,多包含回忆性的描写。

    20. Ballad: A story told in verse and usually meant to be sung. In many countries, the folk ballad was one of the earliest forms of literature. Folk ballads have no known authors. They were transmitted orally from generation to generation and were not set down in writing until centuries after they were first sung. The subject matter of folk ballads stems from the everyday life of the common people. Devices commonly used in ballads are the refrain, incremental repetition, and code language. A later form of ballad is the literary ballad, which imitates the style of the folk ballad.

    民谣:民谣是一种做诗配唱的故事。在很多国家,民谣是最早的文学形式之一,都是无名作家所写,它们从开始传唱到真正写下来要在口头流传好几代人。民谣中所采用的手法多为叠句、重复和暗语。后来民谣就变成了有文字的歌谣,其风格模仿民间歌谣。

    21. Ballad stanza: A type of four-line stanza. The first and third lines have four stressed words or syllables; the second and fourth lines have three stresses. Ballad meter is usually iambic. The number of unstressed syllables in each line may vary. The second and fourth lines rhyme.

    民谣体诗节:一种四行诗节,第一、三行由四个重读单词或音节组成,二、四行由三个重音组成。民谣的韵脚往往采用抑扬格的形式,每一行中非重度音节的数目不等,二、四行押韵。

    22. Biography: A detailed account of a person’s life written by another person.

    23. Blank verse: Verse written in unrhymed iambic pentameter.

    素体诗:用五音步抑扬格写的无韵诗。

    24. Caesura: A break or pause in a line of poetry.

    休止:一行诗中的间断或停顿。

    25. Canto: A section or division of a long poem.

    诗章:长诗的一部分。

    26. Caricature: The use of exaggeration or distortion to make a figure appear comic or ridiculous. A physical characteristic, an eccentricity, a personality trait, or an act may be exaggerated.

    漫画:用夸张或扭曲的手法来描写一个人物的外貌特征、怪癖、个性或某个动作来产生滑稽可笑的效果。

    27. Character: In appreciating a short story, characters are an indispensable element. Characters are the persons presented in a dramatic or narrative work. Forst divides characters into two types: flat character, which is presented without much individualizing detail; and round character, which is complex in temperament and motivation and is represented with subtle particularity.

    人物:在短篇小说的欣赏中,人物是必不可少一个元素。人物是喜剧或小说中所描写的人。福斯特把人物划分为两类,扁平型人物和圆型人物。扁平型人物往往缺乏个人化的细节描写而圆型人物则在性格和行为动机上较为复杂。

    28. Characterization:the means by which a writer reveals that personality.

    人物描写:一个作家描写某个人物的方法。

    29. Classicism: A movement or tendency in art, literature, or music that reflects the principles manifested in the art of ancient Greece and Rome. Classicism emphasizes the traditional and the universal, and places value on reason, clarity, balance, and order. Classicism, with its concern for reason and universal themes, is traditionally opposed to Romanticism, which is concerned with emotions and personal themes.

    古典主义:在艺术、文学或音乐方面反映古希腊、罗马文学原理的运动。古典主义强调传统,追求理性、明晰、平衡和秩序。因为古典主义强调理性和普遍主题,在传统上反对强调感情和个人主题的浪漫主义。

    30. Climax: The point of greatest intensity, interest, or suspense in a story’s turning point. The action leading to the climax and the simultaneous increase of tension in the plot are known as the rising action. All action after the climax is referred to as the falling action, or resolution. The term crisis is sometimes used interchangeably with climax.

    高潮:小说中最紧张、最有趣或最具悬念的转折点。情节中引起高潮的动作和情节紧张度的增加称作“上升”,高潮后的动作称为“回落”或“结局”。有时候高潮又称作“转折点”。

    31. Conceit: A kind of metaphor that makes a comparison between two startlingly different things. A conceit may be a brief metaphor, but it usually provides the framework for an entire poem. An especially unusual and intellectual kind of conceit is the metaphysical conceit.

    新奇的比喻:将两种截然不同的食物进行对比的一种隐喻。它虽被视为是一种隐喻,但是它往往构建了整首诗的框架,最为奇特的应属玄学诗里面的。

    32. Conflict: A struggle between two opposing forces or characters in a short story, novel, play, or narrative poem. Usually the events of the story are all related to the conflict, and the conflict is resolved in some way by the story’s end.

    矛盾:在小说、短篇小说、戏剧或叙事诗中相互对立的两种力量。故事中的事件往往都和矛盾有关,并且在故事的结尾矛盾都会得以解决。

    33. Connotation: All the emotions and associations that a word or phrase may arouse. Connotation is distinct from denotation, which is the literal or “ dictionary” meaning of a word or phrase.

    内涵:一个词或短语所指的所有的情感和联系。与外延不同,外延则是指一个词的字面意思或词典上的解释。

    34. Consonance: The repetition of similar consonant sounds in the middle or at the end of words.

    谐音:单词词尾或中间相似辅音的重复。

    35. Couplet: Two consecutive lines of poetry that rhyme. A heroic couplet is an iambic pentameter couplet.

    对句:两个连续押韵的诗行。英雄双行体的对句一般都为抑扬格五音步。

    36. Critical Realism: The critical realism of the 19th century flourished in the forties and in the beginning of fifties. The realists first and foremost set themselves the task of criticizing capitalist society from a democratic viewpoint and delineated the crying contradictions of bourgeois reality. But they did not find a way to eradicate social evils.

    批判现实主义:批判现实主义在19世纪40年代达到高潮。批判现实主义作家们往往把从民主的角度批评和揭露资本主义社会的丑恶视为己任,但他们并没有找到治疗社会弊病的良方。

    37. Dactyl: It’s made up of one stressed and two unstressed syllables, with the stressed in front.

    扬抑抑格:扬抑抑格由一个重度音节和两个非重度音节组成,重读音节在前。

    38. Denotation: The literal or “dictionary” meaning of a word.

    外延:单词的字面意义或“词典”解释。

    39. Denouement: The outcome of a plot. The denouement is that part of a play, short story, novel, or narrative poem in which conflicts are resolved or unraveled, and mysteries and secrets connected with the plot are explained.

    结局:情节的结尾部分。在戏剧、小说、短篇小说的结尾部分,矛盾得以解决,和情节相关的秘密都得以揭露。

    40. Diction: A writer’s choice of words, particularly for clarity, effectiveness, and precision.

    措辞:一个作家用词的选择,主要是为了清楚、有效和简练等目的。

    41. Dissonance: A harsh or disagreeable combination of sounds; discord. 不和谐音:刺耳或无法融洽的音的组合,噪音。

    42. Dramatic monologue: A kind of narrative poem in which one character speaks to one or more listeners whose replies are not given in the poem. The occasion is usually a crucial one in the speaker’s personality as well as the incident that is the subject of the poem.

    戏剧独白:在一种叙事诗里面,一个人物对其他的人物讲话但并没有交代他们的回答,这种场合往往对反映说话人的性格特征和诗歌的主题是至关重要的。

    43. Elegy: A poem of mourning, usually over the death of an individual. An elegy is a type of lyric poem, usually formal in language and structure, and solemn or even melancholy in tone.

    挽歌:为某个死去的人所做的诗,挽歌往往属于抒情诗,在语言和机构上比较正式,语气上比较庄重甚至是哀伤的。

    44. Emblematic image: A verbal picture or figure with a long tradition of moral or religious meaning attached to it.

    象征性意象:蕴含道德或宗教意义的文字描述或人物。

    45. Enlightenment: With the advent of the 18th century, in England, as in other European countries, there sprang into life a public movement known as the Enlightenment. The Enlightenment on the whole, was an expression of struggle of the then progressive class of bourgeois against feudalism. The social inequality, stagnation, prejudices and other survivals of feudalism. They attempted to place all branches of science at the service of mankind by connecting them with the actual deeds and requirements of the people.

    启蒙主义:启蒙主义是在18世纪在英国发生的。总体上,启蒙主义是当时的资产阶级对封建主义,社会的不平等、死寂、偏见和其他的封建残余的一种反对。通过将科学的各个分支与人民的日常生活和需要联系起来,启蒙主义者们努力将他们变成为人民大众服务的工具

    46. Epic: A long narrative poem telling about the deeds of a great hero and reflecting the values of the society from which it originated. Many epics were drawn from an oral tradition and were transmitted by song and recitation before they were written down.

    史诗:讲述英雄事迹并反映出这些英雄事迹的社会价值观的长篇叙事诗。在成为之前,很多史诗都来自于口头传统并通过歌唱和背诵流传。

    47. Epigram: A short, witty, pointed statement often in the form of a poem. 警句诗:一种简短、智慧、蕴含深刻的诗。

    48. Epigraph: A quotation or motto at the beginning of a chapter, book, short story, or poem that makes some point about the work. 题词:在一章、一本书、短篇小说或诗歌的开头指涉作品内容的引文或铭文。

    49. Epilogue: A short addition or conclusion at the end of a literary work. 收场白:文学作品末尾简短的补充或结论。

    50. Epiphany: A moment of illumination, usually occurring at or near the end of a work.

    顿悟:事实得以揭示的时刻,往往发生在作品的结尾或将近收尾部分。

    51. Epitaph: An inscription on a gravestone or a short poem written in memory of someone who has died.

    52. Epithet: A descriptive name or phrase used to characterize someone or something.

    称号:用来描述一个人或事物的描写性词或短语。

    53. Era of Modernism: The years from 1910 to 1930 are often called the Era of Modernism, for there seems to have been in both Europe and America a strong awareness of some sort of “break” with the past. The new artists shared a desire to capture the complexity of modern life, to focus on the variety and confusion of the 20th century by reshaping and sometimes discarding the ideas and habits of the 19th century. The Era of Modernism was indeed the era of the New.

    现代主义时期:从1910到1930年这一段时间被称作现代主义时期,因为在这一时期,不论是在美国还是在欧洲人们都认识到一种强烈的与过去的“决裂”,新艺术家们都渴望反映现代生活的复杂性,都渴望通过重新构建,有时候甚至放弃19世纪的思想和习惯来聚焦于20世纪的多样性和困惑之上。

    54. Essay: A piece of prose writing, usually short, that deals with a subject in a limited way and expresses a particular point or view. An essay may be serious or humorous, tightly organized or rambling, restrained or emotional. The two general classifications of essay are the informal essay and the formal essay. An informal essay is usually brief and is written as if the writer is talking informally to the reader about some topic, using a conversational style and a personal or humorous tone. By contrast, a formal essay is tightly organized, dignified in style, and serious in tone.

    小品文:小品文一般都是简短的散文,作家通过有线的篇幅发表自己独特的看法。小品文的风格要么严肃要么幽默,组织或严谨或松散,情感或抒发或藏而不露。小品文大体上又分为正式的和非正式的两种。非正式的小品文一般比较短,使用对话的风格和个人化或幽默的语气,似乎在给读者针对一个话题侃侃而谈。相比之下,正式的小品文则组织严谨,风格高雅,语气严肃。

    55. Exemplum说教故事: A tale, usually inserted into the text of a sermon that illustrates a moral principle.

    劝喻故事:穿插在步道中间来阐述一种道德原则的故事。

    56. Fable: A fable is a short story, often with animals as its characters, which illustrate a moral.

    寓言:以动物为主人公来写的短小的故事。

    57. Farce: A type of comedy based on a ridiculous situation, often with stereotyped characters. The humor in a farce is largely slapstick—that is, it often involves crude physical action. The characters in a farce are often the butts of practical jokes.

    闹剧:闹剧是戏剧的一种,它以搞笑的情节为基础,往往使用典型化的人物,闹剧中的幽默很大程度上都是打闹——它往往会有比较激烈的肢体动作。闹剧中的人物一般都是被取笑的对象。

    58. Figurative language: Language that is not intended to be interpreted in a literal sense. By appealing to the imagination, figurative language provides new ways of looking at the world. Figurative language consists of such figures of speech as hyperbole, metaphor, metonymy, oxymoron, personification, simile, and synecdoche.

    比喻用语:不能用字面意义来解释的用语。通过想象,比喻用语让读者以新的方式看待世界,它一般包括夸张、隐喻、转喻、矛盾修饰法、拟人、明喻和提喻等修辞手法。

    59. Flashback: A scene in a short story, novel, play, or narrative poem that interrupts the action to show an event that happened earlier.

    倒叙:在短篇小说、小说、戏剧或叙事诗中穿插在叙述中讲述更早的一件事。

    60. Foil: A character who sets off another character by contrast.

    衬托:通过对比来烘托另一个人物的人物。

    61. Foot: It is a rhythmic unit, a specific combination of stressed and unstressed syllables.

    音步:音步是诗歌韵律的一个单元,是一个重度音节和非重度音节的组合。

    62. Foreshadowing: The use of hints or clues in a narrative to suggest what will happen later. Writers use foreshadowing to create interest and to build suspense. Sometimes foreshadowing also prepares the reader for the ending of the story.

    伏笔:在叙述中使用暗示或线索来预示将要发生的事情,作家们使用伏笔来增加读者的兴趣和产生悬念,有时伏笔又为故事的结尾做好铺垫。

    63. Free Verse: Verse that has either no metrical pattern or an irregular pattern.

    自由诗:按照语言的抑扬顿挫和意象模式,而不是按照固定韵律写出的诗。它的韵律建立在音素、语词、短语、句子和段落等形式的基础上,而不是建立在音步传统格律单位上。因此,自由诗消除了很多不自然的成分和诗体表现的某些审美差距。20世纪初,在英国诗法中自由诗已经流行。

    64. Hyperbole: A figure of speech using exaggeration, or overstatement, for special effect.

    夸张:为了产生特定的效果而使用夸大其词的方法所产生的一种修辞方式。

    65. Iamb: It is the most commonly used foot in English poetry, in which an unstressed syllable comes first, followed by a stressed syllable.

    抑扬格:在英语诗歌中使用最广泛的一种音步,抑扬格往往是一个非重度音节后跟一个重度音节。

    Iambic pentameter: A poetic line consisting of five verse feet, with each foot an iamb—that is, an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable. Iambic pentameter is the most common verse line in English poetry.

    抑扬格五音步诗:一行诗包含五个音步,每个音步都是抑扬格。

    66. Imagism: It’s a poetic movement of England and the U.S. flourished from 1909 to 1917.The movement insists on the creation of images in poetry by “the direct treatment of the thing” and the economy of wording. The leaders of this movement were Ezra Pound and Amy Lowell.

    意象主义:意象主义是在1909到1917年之间在英国和美国的一次诗歌运动。意象主义主张在诗歌通过“直接描写事物”和简介的用词来产生意象,领导人物为庞德和艾米?罗威尔

    67. Incremental repetition: The repetition of a previous line, or lines but with a slight variation each time that advances the narrative stanza by stanza. This device is commonly used in ballads.

    反复:反复是诗歌每一节对前面一节的一行或几行的重复,有些是完全重复,有些略有改动,在民谣中普遍使用。

    68. In medias res: A technique of plunging into the middle of a story and only later using a flashback to tell what has happened previously. is Latin for “in the middle of things”.

    插叙:从故事的中间切入并用倒叙的方式讲述先前发生的事情,In medias res是一个拉丁词,指“处于事件的中间”。

    69. Inversion: The technique of reversing, or inverting, the normal word order of a sentence. Writers may use inversion to create a certain tone or to emphasize a particular word or idea. A poet may invert a line so that it fits into a particular meter or rhyme scheme.

    倒装:在一句话中将单词顺序颠倒的一种写作技巧,作家往往使用倒装来产生某种语气或强调某个特点的词或想法,诗人使用倒装主义是为了让诗行的韵律更加工整。

    70. Irony: A contrast or an incongruity between what is stated and what is really meant, or between what is expected to happen and what actually happens. Three kinds of irony are (1) verbal irony, in which a writer or speaker says one thing and means something entirely different; (2) dramatic irony, in which a reader or an audience perceives something that a character in the story or play does not know; (3) irony of situation, in which the writer shows a discrepancy between the expected results of some action or situation and its actual results.

    反讽:反讽指所叙述的事情和真正的所指之间或期待发生的事情和实际发生的事情之间的对比或不一致,反讽有3种:(1)词语反讽,作者或说话人说的是一件事但指的却是截然不同的另一件事;(2)戏剧反讽,指读者或观众在故事或戏剧中意识到故事或剧中人物所没有意识到的事;(3)情境反讽,指作家所创造的人们对的行动或情境所期待的结果和实际发生的结果产生的差距。

    71. Kenning代称: In Old English poetry, an elaborate phrase that describes persons, things, or events in a metaphorical and indirect way.

    比喻的复合辞:在古英语诗歌中,用比喻或直接的方式用一个复杂的短语来描写代指人物,事物或时间。

    72. Local Colorism: The definition of local colorism is made clear by Hamlin Garland in hisCrumble Idols,he claims that it has “such quality and texture and background that it could not have been written in any other place or anyone else than a native.” Here “text” refers to the elements which characterizes a local culture, elements such as speech, customs, and mores peculiar to one particular place. And his “background” covers physical setting and those distinctive qualities of landscape which condition human thought and behavior. The ultimate aim of the local colorism is to create the illusion of an indigenous little world with qualities that differs from the world outside.

    73. Lost Generation: This term has been used again and again to describe the people of the postwar years. It describes the writers like Hemingway who lived in poverty. It describes the Americans who returned to their native land with an intense awareness of living in an unfamiliar changing world. The young English and American expatriates, men and women, were caught in the war and cut off from the old values and yet unable to come to terms with the new era when civilization had gone mad. They wandered pointlessly and restlessly, enjoying things like fishing, swimming, bullfight and beauties of nature, but they were aware all the while that the world is crazy and meaningless and futile. Their whole life is undercut and defeated.

    迷茫的一代:这个词往往被反复用来指战后的人们。它用来描述像海明威那样生活在贫困中的作家,描写返回祖国后意识到他们生活在一个陌生的急剧变化的世界里的人们。那些移居国外的那些年轻的美国人和英国人,不论男女,经历的战争的洗礼,他们和旧的价值观完全的隔离然而又无法融入这个社会文明疯狂发展的新世界。他们漫无目的不停地游荡,他们喜欢钓鱼、游泳、斗牛和大自然的美景,但他们自始至终都觉得这是一个疯狂、毫无意义、颓废的时代。他们整个的生活都是颓废失败的。

    74. Lyric: A poem, usually a short one, that expresses a speaker’s personal thoughts or feelings. The elegy, ode, and sonnet are all forms of the lyric.抒情诗:一种比较短小的用来表达作者个人思想或感情的诗。挽歌、颂歌、和十四行诗都是抒情诗。

    75. Masque: An elaborate and spectacular dramatic entertainment that was popular among the English aristocracy in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. Masques were written as dramatic poems and make use of songs, dances, colorful costumes, and startling stage effects.

    假面剧:假面剧于16世纪和17世纪在英国非常的流行。它用戏剧诗的形式写成,并使用歌唱、舞蹈和华丽的服装以及绚丽的舞台效果来娱乐观众。

    76. Melodrama: A drama that has stereotyped characters, exaggerated emotions, and a conflict that pits an all-good hero or heroine against an all-evil villain. The good characters always win and the evil ones are always punished. Also, each character in a melodrama had a theme melody, which was played each time he or she made an appearance on stage.

    情节剧:一种感伤戏剧。它采用老一套的人物和夸张的情感,剧中善良无暇的男女主人公总是对抗无比邪恶的坏蛋,最后好人总是取胜而坏人总会得到惩罚。每一个人物在剧中都有一个主题曲,这个曲子在他或她每次出场的时候都会演奏。

    77. Metaphor: A figure of speech that makes a comparison between two things that are basically dissimilar. Unlike simile, a metaphor does not use a connective word such as like, as, or resembles in making the comparison.

    隐喻:在修辞中把两种不同的食物进行对比的一种方法,与明喻不同,隐喻不会使用像“like”、“as”、或“resemble”这样的词。

    78. Metaphysical poetry: The poetry of John Donne and other 17th century poets who wrote in a similar style. Metaphysical poetry is characterized by verbal wit and excess, ingenious structure, irregular meter, colloquial language, elaborate imagery, and a drawing together of dissimilar ideas.

    玄学诗:约翰?多恩的诗或17世纪其他诗人写的相同风格的诗。玄学诗多使用巧智,结构精巧,韵律多变,语言口语化,意象奇特,把不同的事物进行并置。

    79. Meter: A generally regular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in poetry.

    格律:在诗歌中,指一诗行的节奏形式。人们设想出各种不同原则,把诗句组织成有节奏的单元。音量诗体,即古希腊和拉丁诗歌的格律,在朗读音节时只管发音时间的长短,而不管他们是否重读。长短音节的不同配合构成基本的节奏单元。音节诗体最常见于重音不明显的语言,如法语和日语。它以一行诗中固定数量的音节为基础。重音诗体,出现在重音强烈的语言中,如日耳曼语。它只计诗行内重音或重读音节的数目。重音-音节诗体是英文诗的常见格式,它把音节算法和重音算法结合起来。英诗中最常见的格律,即抑扬格五音步格,就是有10个音节或5个抑扬格音步的诗句。每一抑扬格音步都是一个非重读音节后面跟一个重读音节。自由诗则没有遵循规则的韵律形式。

    80. Metonymy: A figure of speech in which something very closely associated with a thing is used to stand for or suggest the thing itself.

    转喻:用和一种事物关系非常紧密的另一种事物来指代这个事物的一种修辞方法。

    81. Miracle play: A popular religious drama of medieval England. Miracle plays were based on stories of the saints or on sacred history.

    神奇剧:在中世纪时期在英国很流行的一种宗教剧,奇迹剧都是以圣人或宗教史上的故事为基础的。

    82. Mock epic: A comic literary form that treats a trivial subject in the grand, heroic style of the epic. A mock epic is also referred to as a mock-heroic poem.

    模仿史诗:以史诗的壮丽、英雄主义的风格针对一件小事所写的一种诗。

    83. Morality play: An outgrowth of miracle plays. Morality plays were popular in the 15th and 16th centuries. In them, virtues and vices were personified.

    道德剧:道德剧是神奇剧的发展,流行于15、16世纪,道德剧中的美德和邪恶都采用拟人化的手法。

    84. Motivation: The reasons, either stated or implied, for a character’s behavior. To make a story believable, a writer must provide characters with motivation sufficient to explain what they do. Characters may be motivated by outside events, or they may be motivated by inner needs or fears.

    动机:作品中明示或暗示的人物行为的原因,为了使故事具有可信度,作家必须让人物有足够的动机来解释他们的所作所为。动机可以是来自外部的事件,也可以是人物内心的需求或因为恐惧。

    85. Multiple Point of View: It is one of the literary techniques William Faulkner used, which shows within the same story how the characters reacted differently to the same person or the same situation. The use of this technique gave the story a circular form wherein one event was the center, with various points of view radiating from it. The multiple points of view technique makes the reader recognize the difficulty of arriving at a true judgment.

    多角度叙述法:威廉?福克纳经常使用的写作技巧之一,它展现了在同一个故事中人物是如何对同一个人或同一种情境做出不同的反应。这种技巧使得故事中以一个事件为中心向四周辐射的圆周结构,多角度叙述法使读者很难做出真正的判断。

    86. Myth: A story, often about immortals and sometimes connected with religious rituals, that is intended to give meaning to the mysteries of the world. Myths make it possible for people to understand and deal with things that they cannot control and often cannot see.

    神话:赋予世界上神秘事物意义的故事,神话通常是关于神的故事,有时和宗教仪式是紧密相连的,它使得人们能够理解他们无法控制也通常看不见的事物

    87. Narration: Like description, narration is a part of conversation and writing. Narration is the major technique used in expository writing,such as autobiography. Successful narration must grow out of good observation, to-the-point selection from observation, and clear arrangement of details in logical sequence, which is usually chronological. Narration gives an exact picture of things as they occur.

    叙述:和描写一样,叙述是对话或写作中的一部分,在说明文写作中应用的主要写作技巧,如自传。成功的叙述必须是来自于细心的观察,对观察的结果进行合理的筛选,并按逻辑顺序对细节进行安排(通常是按年代)。叙述对于事物按其本来面目进行精确的描述。

    88. Narrative poem: A poem that tells a story. One kind of narrative poem is the epic, a long poem that sets forth the heroic ideals of a particular society.

    叙事诗:讲故事的诗被称作是叙事诗,史诗就是叙事诗的一种。

    89. Narrator: One who narrates, or tells, a story. A story may be told by a first-person narrator, someone who is either a major or minor character in the story. Or a story may be told by a third-person narrator, someone who is not in the story at all. The word narrator can also refer to a character in a drama who guides the audience through the play, often commenting on the action and sometimes participating in it.

    叙述者:叙述一件事或讲故事的人就是叙述者。一个故事可以由一个第一人称叙述者来讲述,他可以是故事中的主要人物也可以是次要人物;也可以由第三人称叙述者来讲述,他在故事中完全是一个局外人。叙述者也可以指在戏剧中贯穿始终引导读者的一个人物,他通常对剧情做出评论,有时也参与其中。

    90. Naturalism: An extreme form of realism. Naturalistic writers usually depict the sordid side of life and show characters who are severely, if not hopelessly, limited by their environment or heredity.

    自然主义:自然是现实主义的一种极端形式,自然主义作家往往反映社会生活的阴暗面,人物通常都受到环境遗传的严重限制。

    91. Nonfiction: It refers to any prose narrative that tells about things as the actually happened or that presents factual information about something. The purpose of this kind of writing is to give a presumably accurate accounting of a person’s life. Writers of nonfiction use the major forms of discourse: description (an impression of the subject); narration (the telling of the story); exposition (explanatory information); persuasion (an argument to influence people’s thinking). Forms: autobiography, biography, essay, story, editorial, letters to the editor found in newspaper, diary, journal, travel literature.

    非小说文学:它指按真实情况来讲述事情的经过或对某事物进行实事求是描写的任何一种叙述性散文。这种写作的目的是为了对一个人的生活景象准确的描述,非小说文学作品的作家采用的主要语篇形式有:描写,叙述,说明,劝说。形式:自传,传记,小品文,故事,社论,报纸中致编辑的信,日记,期刊,游记文学。

    92. Novel: A book-length fictional prose narrative, having many characters and often a complex plot.

    长篇小说:一种小说体裁,有相当的长度及完整性,把想像出来的一群人物的前后相关事件连接起来,表达人类的生活经验。这类作品有着众多的种类和风格,有流浪汉小说、书信体小说、哥特式的、浪漫主义的、写实主义的以及历史小说等。

    93. Ode: A complex and often lengthy lyric poem, written in a dignified formal style on some lofty or serious subject. Odes are often written for a special occasion, to honor a person or a season or to commemorate an event.

    颂诗:一种风格优雅、诗节复杂且通常篇幅较长的抒情诗,以崇高或严肃的事物为主题。颂诗通常都是为某个特殊的场合而作,为了赞美某个人或事物,或某个季节或纪念某个事件。

    94. Oxymoron: a figure of speech that combines opposite or contradictory ideas or terms. An oxymoron suggests a paradox, but it does so very briefly, usually in two or three words.

    矛盾修辞法:把两种截然相反或自相矛盾的两种想法或词联系在一起的一种修辞手法,矛盾修辞法都很简短,一般为二到三个词,它往往是人想的反论。

    95. Paradox: A statement that reveals a kind of truth, although it seems at first to be self-contradictory and untrue.

    反论:看起来明显自相矛盾的陈述,其言下之意需经仔细思考才能体会。反论的主要目的是引起注意和激发新的见解,成语“少便是多”(Less is more)便是一个例子。在诗歌里,反论为一种同时兼有谬误和真理的紧张感的手法,不必去用惊人的对比,只要把普通词义加以细微而连续的修饰即可。如果把一个反论压缩为两个词,如“虽生犹死”(living death),则称为矛盾形容法。

    96. Parallelism: (a figure of speech) The use of phrases, clauses, or sentences that are similar or complementary in structure or in meaning. Parallelism is a form of repetition.

    对句法:(修辞)使用在结构或意义上相似或互补的短语、从句或句子的一种修辞手法,是重复的一种。

    97. Parody: The humorous imitation of a work of literature, art, or music. A parody often achieves its humorous effect through the use of exaggeration or mockery. In literature, parody can be made of a plot, a character, a writing style, or a sentiment or theme.

    戏仿:对一部文学、艺术或音乐作品的诙谐模仿。戏仿往往是通过夸张或嘲笑的手法来达到其诙谐幽默的效果。在文学上,戏仿可以是情节、人物、写作风格、情感或主题

    98. Pastoral: A type of poem that deals in an idealized way with shepherds and rustic life.

    田园诗:以理想化的方式来描写牧人或田园生活的诗。

    99. Pathos: The quality in a work of literature or art that arouses the reader’s feelings of pity, sorrow, or compassion for a character. The term is usually used to refer to situations in which innocent characters suffer through no fault of their own.

    怜悯:文学或艺术作品中的人物激起读者惋惜、悲伤或同情的性质,这个术语通常指无辜的人忍受不白之冤的那些情景。

    100. Pictorialism: It’s an important poetic device characterized by efforts to achieve striking visual effects. Among its features are irregularity of line, contrast or enchantment of light, color and image. Other means of pictorialism include personification, juxtaposition and the matching of colors with verbs of action.

    生动描写:在诗歌中为了达到一定的视觉效果而采用的一种重要手法,其主要特征有诗行的不规则性,光线、颜色和形象的对比或混合。其他的方法包括拟人、并列以及用行为动词将颜色加以连接。

    101. Plot: Plot is the first and most obvious quality of a story. It is the sequence of events or actions in a short story, novel, play, or narrative poem. For the reader, the plot is the underlying pattern in a work of fiction, the structural element that gives it unity and order. For the writer, the plot is the guiding principle of selection and arrangement. Conflict, a struggle of some kind, is the most important element of plot. Each event in the plot is related to the conflict, the struggle that the main character undergoes. Conflict may be external or internal, and there may be more than one form of conflict in a work. As the plot advances, we learn how the conflict is resolved. Action is generally introduced by the exposition, information essential to understanding the situation. The action rises to a crisis, or climax. This movement is called the rising action. The falling action, which follows the crisis, shows a reversal of fortune for the protagonist. The denouement or resolution is the moment when the conflict ends and the outcome of the action is clear.

    情节:情节是故事中最重要的元素,它是短篇小说、长篇小说、戏剧或叙事诗里面事件或行动的顺序。对于读者来说,情节是小说中最基础的部分,是赋予小说完整性和有序性的结构性元素;对于作家来说,情节是选择与安排的主导原则。矛盾(一种冲突)是情节最重要的元素。情节中的每一个事件都是和矛盾相联系的,是主要人物所以经历的斗争。矛盾可以来自内部,也可以来自外部,一部作品中也可以由多种形式的矛盾冲突。随着情节的发展,我们就能看到矛盾是如何得以解决的。情节是理解情境的至关重要的信息,它通过说明进行介绍。行动会发展到高潮,这种发展被称为上升,而高潮后的回落有展现了主人公命运的逆转。结局或收尾是矛盾的得以解决并交代事情的结果的时刻。

    102. Poetry: The most distinctive characteristic of poetry is form and music. Poetry is concerned with not only what is said but how it is said. Poetry evokes emotions rather than express facts. Poetry means having a poetic experience. Imagination is also an essential quality of poetry. Poetry often leads us to new perceptions, new feelings and experiences of which we have not previously been aware.

    诗歌:诗歌最突出的特质是形式与音乐性;诗歌所关心的不仅是说了什么,而且关系说的方式;诗歌在读者心中会激起情感而不是表述事实;诗歌就意味着有着诗的体验;想象也是诗歌的一个重要特征;诗歌通常会让我们经历未曾有过的体验和感受。

    103. Point of view: The vantage point from which a narrative is told. There are two basic points of view: first-person and third-person. In the first-person point of view, the story is told by one of the characters in his or her own words. The first-person point of view is limited. In the third-person point of view, the narrator is not a character in the story. The narrator may be an omniscient. On the other hand, the third-person narrator might tell a story from the point of view of only one character in the story.

    叙事角度:讲故事的出发点,叙事角度有两种:第一人称和第三人称。

    104. Pre-Romanticism: It originated among the conservative groups of men and letters as a reaction against Enlightenment and found its most manifest expression in the “Gothic novel”.

    前浪漫主义:前浪漫主义来源于保守的文人中间以反对启蒙主义的沉闷,在“哥特小说”中体现的最多。

    105. Protagonist: The central character of a drama, novel, short story, or narrative poem. The protagonist is the character on whom the action centers and with whom the reader sympathizes most. Usually the protagonist strives against an opposing force, or antagonist , to accomplish something.

    主人公:戏剧、长篇小说、短篇小说或叙事诗的中心人物。主人公是所有行动所围绕的中心,也是读者最为关心和同情的人物。主人公通常在故事中与反面人物作斗争以得到某个东西。

    106. Psalm: A song or lyric poem in praise of God. 诗篇:赞美上帝的歌或抒情诗。

    107. Psychological Realism: It is the realistic writing that probes deeply into the complexities of characters’ thoughts and motivations. Henry James is considered the founder of psychological realism. His novel The Ambassadors is considered to be a masterpiece of psychological realism.

    心里现实主义“深入描写故事中主人公思想和动机的复杂性的一种现实主义,亨利?詹姆斯被认为是心里现实主义的创始人,他的《大使》通常被认为心里现实主义的杰作。

    108. Pun: The use of a word or phrase to suggest tow or more meaning at the same time. Puns are generally humorous.

    双关:使用一个词来同时指代两个或以上意义的一种幽默的方法,

    109. Quatrain: Usually a stanza or poem of four lines. A quatrain may also be any group of four lines unified by a rhyme scheme. Quatrains usually follow an abab, abba, or abcb rhyme scheme.

    四行诗:四行诗通常是四行成段的诗或诗节。四行诗通常是通过押韵组合成的四行诗节的诗,亚运形式一般为abab, abba,或abcb。

    110. Realism: The attempt in literature and art to represent life as it really is, without sentimentalizing or idealizing it. Realistic writing often depicts the everyday life and speech of ordinary people. This has led, sometimes, to an emphasis on sordid details.

    现实主义:在文学和艺术中按照生活的本来面目去反映生活,不把它感伤化也不把它完美化,现实主义文学作品往往展现日常生活和普通大众,这就会导致了现实主义文学通常会反映社会的阴暗面。

    111. Refrain: A word phrase, line or group of lines repeated regularly in a poem, usually at the end of each stanza. Refrains are often used in ballads and narrative poems to create a songlike rhythm and to help build suspense. Refrains can also serve to emphasize a particular idea.

    叠句:在一首诗中,通常是每行的末尾很有规律的重复出现的一个短语、一行或几行叫叠句。叠句经常在民谣和叙事诗里面出现,以产生一种音乐效果并产生悬念。叠句也可以用来强调某个观点。

    112. Rhyme: It’s one of the three basic elements of traditional poetry. It is the repetition of sounds in two or more words or phrases that appear close to each other in a poem. If the rhyme occurs at the ends of lines, it is called end rhyme. If the rhyme occurs within a line, it is called internal rhyme. Approximate rhyme is rhyme in which only the final consonant sounds of the words are identical. A rhyme scheme is the pattern of rhymes in a poem. Interlocking rhyme is a rhyme scheme in which an unrhymed line in one stanza rhymes with a line in the following stanza. Interlocking rhyme occurs in an Italian verse form called terza rima.

    韵:是传统诗歌三大元素之一,它是指两个或两个以上的音在相邻的两个词或短语中重复的现象。如果韵在每行的末尾出现,这叫尾韵;在一行的中间出现叫中间韵;近似韵是指单词末尾最后的辅音是相同的。韵律是诗中的押韵方式。连环韵指一行诗在前一节中没有押韵句,而在后一节中其中的一句押韵,连环韵通常出现在三行体诗中(象旦丁《神曲》中所用的诗体,三行为一节,每节的第二行与下一节的第一、三行押韵,如:aba, bcb, cdc)。

    113. Rhythm: It is one of the three basic elements of traditional poetry. It is the arrangement of stressed and unstressed syllables into a pattern. Rhythm often gives a poem a distinct musical quality. Poets also use rhythm to echo meaning.

    节奏:传统诗歌三大元素之一,它是重读音节和非重度音节的组合方式。节奏通常赋予诗歌强烈的音乐感,诗人使用节奏也是为了反映诗歌的含义。

    114. Romance: Any imagination literature that is set in an idealized world and that deals with a heroic adventures and battles between good characters and villains or monsters.

    传奇故事:指以理想化的世界为背景并且描写主人公的英雄冒险事迹和善与恶的斗争的想象文学作品。

    115. Satire: A kind of writing that holds up to ridicule or contempt the weaknesses and wrongdoings of individuals, groups, institutions, or humanity in general. The aim of satirists is to set a moral standard for society, and they attempt to persuade the reader to see their point of view through the force of laughter.

    以取笑或蔑视某个个人、团体、组织、或全人类的弱点或错误行为的一种文学作品。批评的目的是为了为社会树立一种道德标准,他们也是为了劝读者通过笑声理解他们的观点。

    116. Scansion: The analysis of verse in terms of meter. 诗的韵律分析

    117. Septet: the seven-line stanza. Chaucerian stanza: ababbcc.

    七行诗节:一种七行诗体,乔叟的诗就是,韵律为ababbcc

    118. Sestet: the six-line stanza. 3couplets/ a quatrain + a couplet/ 2 triplets.

    六行诗节:三个对句或一个四行诗节加一个对句,或两个三联对。

    119. Setting: The time and place in which the events in a short story, novel, play or narrative poem occur. Setting can give us information, vital to plot and theme. Often, setting and character will reveal each other.

    背景:在短篇、长篇小说、或叙事诗里面故事发生的时间和地点,它和人物通常会相互揭示。背景可以得读者提供对于情节和主题至关重要的信息。

    120. Short Story: A short story is a brief prose fiction, usually one that can be read in a single sitting. It generally contains the six major elements of fiction—characterization, setting, theme, plot, point of view, and style.

    短篇小说:短篇小说是一篇简短的散文性虚构文体,读者通常在很短的时间内可以把他读完。短篇小说一般包含小说的六要素:人物、背景、主题、情节、视角和风格。

    121. Simile: (a figure of speech) A comparison make between two things through the use of a specific word of comparison, such as like, as than, or resembles. The comparison must be between two essentially unlike things.

    明喻:通过使用特定的比较连词如“like”,“as”或“resemble”,把两种事物进行比较的一种修辞手法,这种比较必须是本质上不同的两种事物。

    122. Skaz: It’s a Russian word used to designate a type of first person narration that has the characteristics of the spoken rather than the written word. In this kind of novel, the narrator is a character who refers to himself as “I” and addresses the reader as “you”. He or she uses vocabulary and syntax characteristic of colloquial speech, and appears to be relating the story spontaneously rather than delivering a carefully constructed and polished written account.

    Skaz:Skaz是一个俄语词,用来指一种第一人称的叙述方法,这种方法具有着口语而不是书面语的特点。在这种小说中,主人公把自己称作“我”,而把读者称作“你”,他或她所使用的单词和句法都是非常具有口语风格,作者似乎是在非常自然的讲一个故事而非认真地杜撰一种书面文本。

    123. Soliloquy: In drama, an extended speech delivered by a character alone onstage. The character reveals his or her innermost thoughts and feelings directly to the audience, as if thinking aloud.

    独白:独白是戏剧中一个人物单独做的台词,这个人物通过他或她直接跟观众说话来表白自己的心声,就好像是自己在大声的思考。

    124. Song: A short lyric poem with distinct musical qualities, normally written to be set to music. In expresses a simple but intense emotion.

    歌:一种具有音乐性的简短的抒情诗,通常用来配乐歌唱,以表达某种强烈的感情。

    125. Spenserian stanza: A nine-line stanza with the following rhyme scheme: ababbabcc. The first eight lines are written in iambic pentameter. The ninth line is written in iambic hexameter and is called an alexandrine.

    斯宾塞诗节:斯宾塞诗节是有九行组成的诗节,其押韵形式通常为ababbabcc。 前八行通常是抑扬格五音步,第九行是抑扬格六音步,有称作亚历山大诗行。

    126. Spondee: It consists of two stressed syllables.

    扬扬格:扬扬格由两个重度音节组成

    127. Sprung Rhythm: A term created by the poet Gerard Manley Hopkins to designate a variable kind of poetic meter in which a stressed syllable may be combined with any number of unstressed syllables. Poems with sprung rhythm have an irregular meter and are meant to sound like natural speech.

    跳韵: 一种接近于正常说话节奏的诗律。特点是频繁出现单个重音节,音步所含音节数变化不定,其排序中插入非重读音节,而这些非重读音节不计入韵律。因为重音音节在这种格律中连续出现,因而这种韵律被称为“跳韵”。由英国诗人G.M.霍普金斯提出,他将跳韵看作是一系列英国早期诗歌和童谣的基础。

    128. Stream of consciousness: “Stream-of-Consciousness” or “interior monologue”, is one of the modern literary techniques. It is the style of writing that attempts to imitate the natural flow of a character’s thoughts, feelings, reflections, memories,, and mental images as the character experiences them. It was first used in 1922 by the Irish novelist James Joyce. Those novels broke through the bounds of time and space, and depicted vividly and skillfully the unconscious activity of the mind fast changing and flowing incessantly, particularly the hesitant, misted, distracted and illusory psychology people had when they faced reality. The modern American writer William Faulkner successfully advanced this technique. In his stories, action and plots were less important than the reactions and inner musings of the narrators. Time sequences were often dislocated. The reader feels himself to be a participant in the stories, rather than an observer. A high degree of emotion can be achieved by this technique.

    意识流:“意识流”或“内心独白”是现代写作技巧之一。它是像是人物亲身经历的那样来模仿人物思想、感觉、回忆、和头脑中意象来写作的一种手法。爱尔兰作家詹姆斯?乔伊斯于1922年首次使用这种方法。意识流小说打破了时间和空间的限制,生动地描写人物不断变化的潜意识活动,尤其是当人们面对现实时的犹豫和充满困惑、幻觉和心不在焉的那种心理。美国作家福克纳对这种技巧做了进一步的发展,在他的故事中,行为和情节相比叙述者的反应和内心活动已经不那么重要了,时间顺序被打破,读者仿佛置身于故事中而不仅仅是一个观察者。

    129. Style: An author’s characteristic way of writing, determined by the choice of words, the arrangement of words in sentences, and the relationship of the sentences to one another.

    风格:一个作家写作的特点。风格是由作家对词汇的选择和安排,以及句与句之间的关系来决定的。

    130. Suspense: The quality of a story, novel, or drama that makes the reader or audience uncertain or tense about the outcome of events. 悬念:故事、小说或戏剧使得读者或观众对事件的结果所感到的不确定或紧张感。

    131. Symbol: A symbol is a sign which suggests more than its literal meaning. In other words, a symbol is both literal and figurative. A symbol is a way of telling a story and a way of conveying meaning. The best symbols are those that are believable in the lives of the characters and also convincing as they convey a meaning beyond the literal level of the story. If the symbol is obscure or ambiguous, then the very obscurity and the ambiguity may also be part of the meaning of the story.

    象征:象征是指一种符号所指的意义超出了它的字面含义,换句话说,象征同时含有其字面意义和比喻义。它是讲故事和表达意义的一种手法。最好的象征是那些人物生活中真实可信并且在超出字面意义来表达的时候能使人信服。如果象征含混、晦涩,那么含混与晦涩也就成了故事含义的一部分。

    132. Symbolism: Symbolism is the writing technique of using symbols. It’s a literary movement that arose in France in the last half of the 19th century and that greatly influenced many English writers, particularly poets, of the 20th century. It enables poets to compress a very complex idea or set of ideas into one image or even one word. It’s one of the most powerful devices that poets employ in creation.

    象征主义:使用象征来写作的一种技巧。象征主义在19世纪后半页在法国兴起,对英国作家产生了很大的影响,尤其是在20世纪诗歌方面。它让诗人把非常复杂的思想浓缩成一个意象甚至一个词。它是诗人在创作中使用的最有力的手段。

    133. Synecdoche: A figure of speech that substitutes a part for a whole. 提喻法:用局部来代替全局的一种修辞手法。

    134. Terza rima: An Italian verse form consisting of a series of three-line stanzas in which the middle line of each stanza rhymes with the first and third lines of the following stanza.

    三行体:一种由三行组成一节的一种意大利诗,诗中每前一节的中间一行和后一节的第一行和第三行押韵。

    135. Theme; The general idea or insight about life that a writer wishes to express in a literary work. All the elements of a literary work-plot, setting, characterization, and figurative language-contribute to the development of its theme.

    主题:一篇文学作品中作家预期表达的关于生活的观点或见解。作品中所有其他的元素——情节、背景、人物描写和比喻用语都是围绕主题展开的。

    136. Tone: The attitude a writer takes toward his or her subject, characters, or audience. The tone of a speech or a piece of writing can be formal or intimate; outspoken or reticent; abstruse or simple; solemn or playful; angry or loving; serious or ironic.

    语气:一个作家对他或她的对象、人物或观众所采取的态度。一篇演讲或作品的语气或正式或随和,或直接或委婉,或深奥或简单,或庄重或戏谑、或愤怒或喜爱,或严肃或嘲讽。

    137. Triplet: The three-line stanza. Tercet: aaa, bbb, ccc, and so on; terza rima: aba, bcb cdc, and so on.

    三行连韵诗节:三行为一节的诗。其中Tercet(三行连韵诗节)为: aaa, bbb, ccc等; terza rima(三行连环韵诗)为: aba, bcb cdc等。

    138. Trochee扬抑格: the reverse of the iambic foot.

    扬抑格:和抑扬格相反的一种音步。

    139. Villanelle: An intricate verse form of French origin, consisting of several three-line stanzas and a concluding four-line stanza.

    维拉内拉诗:起源于法国的一种精美的诗歌形式,它由若干个三行诗节和结尾的一个四行诗节组成。

    140. Wit: A brilliance and quickness of perception combined with a cleverness of expression. In the 18th century, wit and nature were related-nature provided the rules of the universe; wit allowed these rules to be interpreted and expressed.

    巧智:把一种聪明的表达和睿智、迅速的感知结合起来称之为巧智,在18世纪,巧智和自然是紧密相连的——自然提高了宇宙的规则,巧智则让这些规则得以诠释和表达。

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